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Gum resin extracts of Boswellia species have been traditionally used in folk medicine for centuries to treat various chronic inflammatory diseases, and experimental data from animal models and studies with human subjects confirm the potential of boswellia extracts as a treatment inflammatory conditions but perhaps cancer.

Anti-inflammatory benefits
Boswellia Serrata is an ancient Ayurvedic herb from India and known among herbalists as a treatment for arthritis. It is also beneficial in helping inflammation and joint health. Extracts of boswellia serrata have natural anti-inflammatory activity at sites where chronic inflammation is present by switching off pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, which initiate the process. Analysis of the ingredients of these extracts revealed that the pentacyclic triterpenes boswellic acids possess biological activities and appear to be responsible for the respective pharmacological actions.

Boswellia and asthma
Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study.
Eur J Med Res. 1998; Gupta I, Gupta V, Gupta S, Lüdtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP. Pharmakologie für Naturwissenschaftler, Pharmazeutisches Institut der Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
The gum resin of Boswellia serrata, known in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as Salai guggal, contains boswellic acids, which have been shown to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study forty patients, 23 males and 17 females in the age range of 18 - 75 years having mean duration of illness, bronchial asthma, were treated with a preparation of gum resin of 300 mg thrice daily for a period of 6 weeks. 70% of patients showed improvement of disease as evident by disappearance of physical symptoms and signs such as dyspnea, rhonchi, number of attacks, increase in FEV subset1, FVC and PEFR as well as decrease in eosinophilic count and ESR. In the control group only 27% of patients showed improvement. The data show a definite role of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

Collagenous colitis
Boswellia serrata extract for the treatment of collagenous colitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007; Madisch A, Miehlke S, Eichele O, Bethke B, Kuhlisch E, Bästlein E, Wilhelms G, Morgner A, Wigginghaus B, Stolte M. Medical Department I, Technical University Hospital, Dresden, Germany.
 The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Boswellia serrata extract on symptoms, quality of life, and histology in patients with collagenous colitis. Patients with chronic diarrhea and histologically proven collagenous colitis were randomized to receive either oral Boswellia serrata extract 400 mg three times daily for 6 weeks or placebo. Complete colonoscopy and histology were performed before and after treatment. Our study suggests that Boswellia serrata extract might be clinically effective in patients with collagenous colitis.

Crohn's disease

Boswellia and osteoarthritis
Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial.
Phytomedicine. 2003; Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L. MS Orthopedics, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Nagpur, India.
Boswellia serrata tree is commonly found in India. The therapeutic value of its gum (guggulu) has been known. It posses good anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic activity. A randomized double blind placebo controlled crossover study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Boswellia serrata Extract in 30 patients of osteoarthritis of knee, 15 each receiving active drug or placebo for eight weeks. After the first intervention, washout was given and then the groups were crossed over to receive the opposite intervention for eight weeks. All patients receiving the herbal treatment reported decrease in knee pain, increased knee flexion and increased walking distance. The frequency of swelling in the knee joint was decreased. Radiologically there was no change. The observed differences between drug treated and placebo being statistically significant, are clinically relevant. Boswellia serrata Extract was well tolerated by the subjects except for minor gastrointestinal symptoms. Boswellia serrata Extract is recommended in the patients of osteoarthritis of the knee with possible therapeutic use in other arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Boswellia serrata review
Frankincense: systematic review.
BMJ. 2008; Ernst E. Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, Exeter, UK.
All randomised clinical trials of Boswellia serrata extract as a treatment for any human medical condition were included and studies of Boswellia serrata preparations combined with other ingredients were excluded. Of 47 potentially relevant studies, seven met all inclusion criteria (five placebo controlled, two with active controls). The included trials related to asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, osteoarthritis, and collagenous colitis. Results of all trials indicated that Boswellia serrata extracts were clinically effective. Three studies were of good methodological quality. No serious safety issues were noted. The evidence for the effectiveness of Boswellia serrata extracts is encouraging but not compelling.

Boswellia side effects, is it safe?
No major boswellia serrata side effects have been mentioned in medical journals


Turmeric has been used early back to centuries in Asian countries especially in India. The use of turmeric as a medicine, with historical evidence, started ever since the inception of Aryurveda. In India dried turmeric roots have been used as a spice for curries, as a coloring agent and as a dye since ancient civilizations. Aryurveda has been using turmeric to remove toxins out and to restore the immunity. There are many different preparations in Aryurveda with turmeric as an ingredient. This was the story roughly two decades back. Now the entire story about turmeric and its potentially beneficial properties are explored on a fast pace by the scientific community on account of painstaking research in this field.  Below are certain benefits of turmeric, which are known already and also some revealed recently  by the scientific community.

1. The active ingredient of turmeric namely ?Curcumin? has shown effective in the treatment of cancer.

2. Turmeric removes the amyloidal plaque buildup in the brain and reduces the cause of Alzheimer?s disease.

3. Turmeric is an antioxidant which can prevent the DNA from harmful exterior toxins that are known to cause leukemia in children.

4. One of the best known anti-inflammatory agents. The best part is side effects are nil.

5. Korean researchers over years of study concluded that, ?The modulation of several cellular transduction pathways by curcumin has recently been extended to elucidate the molecular basis for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.  Thus turmeric may aid in weight management.

6. Turmeric powder together with salt is very good for indigestion and related stomach problems.

7.  Turmeric mixed with lime has been used as a potent medicine for insect bites since ancient times.

8.  Consumption of roasted turmeric with sugar or jaggery is good for itching.

9. For gout, mix turmeric powder with dried coconut, cashew nut and jagerry. This relives the pain and swelling.

10. Turmeric gives excellent results for jaundice and liver problems, if a spoon is taken twice daily with water or honey.

11. Dental problems can be cured by massaging ground turmeric with salt and mustard oil. This is also helpful in relieving pain and swelling.

12. Turmeric proved potentially good for the treatment of arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

13. Turmeric speeds up would heal and this has been used since ages for wound treatment of domesticated animals and pets.

14. Recent researches have been proved that turmeric can inhibit the growth of new blood vessels on tumors.

15. Applying a paste of turmeric before bath is good for preventing skin problems. This is a traditional practice in India to protect the skin and to reduce pigmentation.


Historical or Traditional Use:
   The first isolation of Bromelain was recorded by the Venezuelan chemist Vicente Marcano in 1891 from the fruit of pineapple.  In 1892, Chittenden, assisted by Joslin and Meara, investigated the matter fully and called it ?bromelin?. Later the term ?Bromelain? was introduced.
    Bromelain was first introduced as a therapeutic supplement in 1957.  Research on Bromelain was first conducted in Hawaii but more recently has been conducted in countries such as Asia, Europe and Latin America.  Germany has recently taken a great interest in Bromelain research; Bromelain is currently the 13th most widely used herbal medicine in Germany.
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? Used after Surgery and Sports Injuries
BromelainTM supplements may reduce swelling, bruising, healing time, and pain following surgery and physical injuries.  In fact, an authoritative body in Germany called the Commission E (similar to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) approved the use of BromelainTM for these purposes.
Bromelain is one of the most popular substances to use for meat tenderizing. Historically, meat tenderizing enzymes were often injected into the muscle of animal.
Today, approximately 900% of meat tenderizer use is in consumer households.  BromelainTM is sold in a powdered form, which is combined with a marinade or directly sprinkled on the uncooked meat.  The enzyme will penetrate the meat and by a process called forking, cause the meat to be tender and palatable when cooked.  If the enzyme is allowed to work for too long, the meat may become too ?mushy? for many consumers? preferences.
It works by blocking some pro-inflammatory metabolites that accelerate and worsen the inflammatory process.  So it is an anti-inflammatory agent.
So it can be used for sports injury, trauma, arthritis, and other kinds of swelling.
It may be used in the treatment of athletic injuries, digestive problems, phlebitis, sinusitis, and aiding healing after surgery.
It has also been proposed for the treatment of arthritis chronic venous insufficiency, easy bruising, gout, hemorrhoids, menstrual pain, autoimmune disorders, ulcerative colitis, and sinusitis.
Studies have shown that Bromelain can also be useful in the reduction of platelet clumping and blood clots in the bloodstream, especially in the arteries.
It may have treatment potential for HIV.
BromelainTM supplementation up to 460 mg has been shown to have no effect on human heart rate or blood pressure; however, increasing doses up to 1840 mg have been shown to increase the heart rate proportionately.
Some studies on animals indicate that application of BromelainTM on the surface of the skin may remove dead tissue from third-degree burns. This application has not yet been tested on people, but traditional and current day practices in Japan, Hawaii and Taiwan include use of topical BromelainTM to clean wounds and burns.
Similarly, some clinicians may recommend this topical agent to reduce swelling from insect bites or stings.
Bromelain supplements may help suppress cough, reduce nasal mucus associated with sinusitis, and relieve the swelling and inflammation caused by hay fever.  Bromelain is approved by the German Commission E for the treatment of sinus and nasal swelling following ear, nose, and throat surgery or trauma.
BromelainTM help to promote and maintain proper digestion and may relieve symptoms of stomach upset or heartburn, particularly when used in conjunction with other enzymes such as amylase (which digests starch) and lipase (which digest fats).
BromelainTM may help to control diarrhea caused by bacteria.
BromelainTM supplements may be effective, if used along with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medications (such as ibuprofen and diclofenac) for reducing pain associated with osteoarthritis.
Long-standing use of BromelainTM may be helpful in the treatment of connective tissue disorders including scleroderma (build up of tough scar-like tissue in the skin and, at times, internal organs), bursitis, and tendonitis.
Some scientific evidence from test tubes and animals suggests that Bromelain can fight against infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.  Therefore, BromelainTM may be useful in the treatment of bronchitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.
Bromelain may help in the treatment or prevention of amyloidosis.
Bromelain and other proteolytic enzymes have been explored as a complementary treatment for cancer.  Although there is some preliminary research, there isn?t enough evidence at this time on the safety or effectiveness of Bromelain for cancer.  It should never be used in place of conventional treatment.
      It has been studied for its effectiveness in treating angina and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD), both alone and in combination with other therapies
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? Available Forms
BromelainTM is available in tablet or capsule form for oral use.  It may also be used topically to treat severe burns.
How to Take It
? Pediatric
There are no known scientific reports on the pediatric use of BromelainTM.  Therefore, use of this supplement is not currently recommended for children.
? Adults
The German Commission E recommends 80 to 320 mg two to three times per day.  For specific conditions, higher doses may be prescribed as follows:
Digestive aid: 500 mg per day in divided doses with meals
Traumatic injuries: 500 mg four times a day on an empty stomach
Joint inflammation: 500 to 2,000 mg a day in two divided doses
? Precautions
Because supplements may have side effects or interact with medications, they should be taken only under the supervision of a knowledgeable healthcare provider.
BromelainTM is generally recommended for no longer than 8 to 10 days in a row.
? Side effect
Nausea, vomiting,
Menorrhagia (excessively heavy menstrual flow)
Possible allergic reactions,
Increased heart rate
Individuals who are allergic to pineapples should not use BromelainTM supplements because skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms may occur.
Pregnant women and individuals with bleeding disorders, high blood pressure and liver or kidney disease should consult a healthcare provider before taking BromelainTM.
People with peptic ulcers should not use BromelainTM.
People with other digestive disorders should consult a qualified healthcare professional before using BromelainTM.
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? Possible Interactions
If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use BromelainTM.
It should not be taken with the following Antibiotics
In a clinical study, it is found that the combination of Bromelain and amoxicillin if given, Bromelain increases the levels of this antibiotic in the blood.  Some studies suggest that Bromelain may increase the body?s ability to absorb tetracycline, but results of other studies have been conflicting.  Until studies confirm these results, it would be wise to avoid combining Bromelain and tetracycline.
Studies suggest Bromelain may also increase the absorption of other medications
Such as: chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and vincristine, ACE inhibitors such as captopril and lisinopril, medications that causes drowsiness, such as benzodiazepines lorazepam or diazepam and some antidepressants, narcotics such as codeine and barbiturates such as phenobarbitol.
Blood-thinning Medications
People taking aspirin, warfarin, or other medications that thin the blood should use BromelainTM with extreme caution because of a possible risk of bleeding when used together.
It should also be used with caution by people taking herbs and supplements that are thought to increase the risk of bleeding, such as ginkgo biloba and garlic.